PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERS "RE-EDUCATED" AT SPECIAL SCHOOLS FOLLOWING CULTURAL REVOLUTION.
Date:9TH OCTOBER, 1973 Thousands of Communist Party leaders in The People's Republic of China have been putting their hands to manual work, as well as studying Communist doctrines at special schools set up following the "Cultural Revolution." They were ordered to "go down to do manual work" under Chairman Mao's "May 7 Directive." Their tasks were to "study production", "do mass work", "criticise and repudiate the bourgeoisie", and to study marxism, Leninism and the Thoughts of Chairman Mao. Dozens of special schools, providing austere accommodation, were set up throughout China for the "reorientation and re-education" of leaders. They remain in the schools for periods of from six months to three years. Each school has its own agricultural industry in which they work. They are paid full salaries and are allowed to visit their families for a day or two each month. At the Kwangchow Number 4 "May 7" school near Hong Kong, the leaders have been engaged mainly in the cultivation of tea, and building industrial appendages to the tea industry, such as processing factories. Since 1971, the school has concentrated heavily on ideological teaching, using productive labour as "an important lesson" in practical application. A student emerging from a period of re-orientation is referred to by the school as being "tempered." Attendance is voluntary, and leaders are "invited" to attend. Very few refuse. They leave when they have "seen the light", repudiated capitalism, and have adopted the "correct line." (Caption:PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERS "RE-EDUCATED" AT SPECIAL SCHOOLS FOLLOWING CULTURAL REVOLUTION.)
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: PUPILS AT SCHOOL FOR DEAF MUTE CHILDREN TREATED BY ACUPUNCTURE
Date:18 Oct 1971 During a visit to the People's Republic of China in October, Visnews correspondent Russell Spurr was shown through a Peking school for deaf mute children. At the school army doctors have been successfully treating the pupils by acupuncture....the deep insertion of gold needles. When the children enter the school emphasis is on physical training, and basic lessons. After acupuncture they progress to an intermediate class where the first vowels are taught. Later, in an advanced class....usually after at least two years treatment, the children regain their speech. The doctors have not claimed full cures, and much experimental work is still being undertaken, but of 238 students treated.....all but 13 recovered their hearing to varying degrees. Sixty students can now speak quite well, 120 are capable of simple speech, and other are still learning. SYNOPSIS: A school for deaf mute children in Peking. Here the initial emphasis is on physical education. To all outward appearances the school looks much the same as any other, but the pupils' chances of recovering their hearing and speech are very much better than most in the same position. Basic lessons are also taught using sign language, and later the children began to recite from the works of Chairman Mao Tse Tung. At the school army doctors have been treating the deaf mute pupils by acupuncture. This involves the deep penetration of gold needles into the back of the head and neck, to stimulate and revive nerves controlling the ear drums. This treatment is given every day for ten days. There follows ten days rest. The course of treatment was not attempted until three years age. After acupuncture the children progress to an intermediate class where the first vowel sounds are taught.(PAUSE 10 SECS) The school was established in 1958, at which time the joint afflictions of the deaf and mute were considered incurable. Doctors began specific acupuncture experiments on each other during the Cultural Revolution. The school also has advanced classes where full speech is regained. Of 238 students treated, so far all but 13 have improved hearing, and 180 are capable of speech. The doctors don't claim full cures, and are continuing research into the treatment. (Caption:PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: PUPILS AT SCHOOL FOR DEAF MUTE CHILDREN TREATED BY ACUPUNCTURE)
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: THE EDUCATION OF THE WORKERS.
Date:19 APRIL 1971 One of the most important directives put out by Chairman Mao during the "Cultural Revolution" was that the old educational system should be remodelled. The old system favoured those with more opportunity to study; it also divorced study from manual labour. Mao Tse-Tung advocated a system which provided more opportunities for the workers and, at the same time, produced a combination of manual labour and intellectual activity. Education officials in the People's Republic of China admit that the system is far from perfect. But following a pronouncement in 1968, factories all over the country have founded colleges which attempt to produce a new class of educated worker. VISNEWS cameraman Russell Spurr visited the Shanghai Machine Tool Plant on Monday (19 April) and filmed this report of the system in action. SYNOPSIS: At the Shanghai Machine Tool Plant in the People's Republic of China, nearly six thousand workers are employed to produce metal gear parts. The factory is one of the largest in Shanghai. It is also an example of a Chinese "workers' college" aimed at producing educated workers. Fifty-two of the workers attend a college in the factory, dividing their time between the classroom and the factory floor. One of the most important directives of Chairman Mao during the "Cultural Revolution" was that the old educational system should be remodelled. He advocated a new system aimed at producing better opportunities for the workers, and at the same time combining manual labour with intellectual activity. Top priority here is given to the study of Mao Tse-Tung's thoughts, Chinese history and Marxism - Leninism. Most of the students are teenagers but there is a springling of older workers being groomed for top production jobs. Officials emphasise that the instructors are no longer leading engineers and professors, but skilled fellow workers. They teach mathematics, dymanics, physical and engineering drawing to the worker - students. Chinese officials have admitted that the system is still far from perfect, but they claim that the idea is a vast improvement on the old educational system which favoured only those with the opportunity to study. The Shanghai Machine Tool Plant was the pioneer of the worker's college idea and was a direct result of the educational pronouncement of 1968. So far, the system has proved feasible and the Chinese aim to introduce the idea into more factories. (Caption:PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: THE EDUCATION OF THE WORKERS.)
CHINA: MAY DAY IN PEKING Date:MAY 1967 I took several preparatory shots on one spool while waiting for chinese leaders to drive by in the park. These shots included focus on large white statue of mao and faces of crowd I believe. But when leaders appeared Maotsetung was surprisingly among them and whole crowd went wild as he went by standing in jeep. I had to struggle to prevent myself being crushed and trampled by almost hysterical crowd and got no picture of mao. So film has lost its cohesion. This is followed immediately by sequence of shots of Tienanmen gate. After he drove by everybody rushed out of park which adjoins Tienanmen thinking he would appear on the gates balcony. Once again you will see shots of the gate and crowd but no appearance. I hope perhaps something can be made of these spools with clever editing or at least as stock if nothing else. Soldiers and red guards wearing drab khaki or blue drabs with red armbands depict successes of campaign by communists to win control of China. They also depict the struggle against imperialism. Working Peoples Palace of Culture park where three of spools shot is a shady compound with groves of wistarias pines willows and cypresses and its buildings with yellow tiled roofs were originally halls of Imperial Ancestral Temple in the Ming and Ching dynasties. Inside Forbidden City roofs of splendid pavilions and halls now have portraits of Mao mounted on them. Hope something can be made of this film and information. Four spools taken on May 1 in Peking in park known as Working Peoples Palace of Culture. Spools numbered 1 to 3 were all taken of various performances by soldiers airmen sailors and red guards in the park. Spool four was taken in the courtyards of the Forbidden City of Chinas former emperors which adjoins the park. It was the only time the Forbidden City, now a museum, has been opened since the Cultural Revolution began a year ago. It was closed to the public again afterwards and remains closed. Some of the spools may have at their ends attempts to film the fireworks display - one of biggest in world - over Tienanmen in evening which was watched by Mao and other leaders from Tienanmen ( Gate of Heavenly peace ). These sections and indeed much of film may not have good result due to lack of expertise on my part. The performances with fierce revolutionary themes reflect the current mood of cultural revolution when great emphasis in being placed on revolutionisation of all forms of literature and art so that the proletarian line overcomes the bourgeois line which opponents of mao tsetung head of state liushaochi and already purged mayor pengchen were said by the maoists to have fostered in their attempts to lead china back to a capitalist restoration. Colourful national costumes and gaiety of tumblers and acrobats which has marked informal may day celebrations up to last year had almost completely disappeared. (Caption:CHINA: MAY DAY IN PEKING)
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: THE STREETS OF PEKING
Date:22 MARCH 1967 THE AFTERMATH OF THE CULTURAL UPHEAVALS IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND THE MASSIVE RED GUARD RALLIES IN PEKING HAS BEEN TO LEAVE THE STREETS OF THE CAPITAL PLASTERED WITH A BEWILDERING MASS OF POSTERS, WALL NEWSPAPERS AND SLOGANS. MOST OF THEM ARE OLD NEWS. SINCE EARLY MARCH, RED GUARDS HAVE BEEN FORBIDDEN TO PUBLISH INFORMATION IN WALL BULLETINS WITHOUT FIRST GETTING PERMISSION FROM THE UNITED RED GUARDS ASSOCIATION IN PEKING. IN THE STREETS, ON THE WALLS OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND EVEN OVER SHOP WINDOWS, THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF POSTERS THICKLY PLASTERED OVER OTHERS AND TELLING THE CONFUSED STORY OF ACCUSATION AND COUNTER-ACCUSATION WHICH HAS BEEN THE FEATURE OF RECENT EVENTS IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA. BUT PEKING IS QUIET NOW, AND SQUARES AND PLAZAS IN THE CAPITAL WHICH WERE ONCE CONSTANTLY FILLED WITH DEMONSTRATING CROWDS, ARE RETURNING TO NORMAL. RED GUARDS STILL MARCH THROUGH THE STREETS, BUT REPORTS FROM PEKING SAY THAT CHAIRMAN MAO TSE-TUNG HAS WARNED THEM TO BE MORE CAREFUL OF THEIR POWER IN FUTURE AND CALLED ON THEM TO RETURN TO THEIR STUDIES. YET THE PAPERWORK OF THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION REMAINS EVERYWHERE IN THE STREETS OF PEKING. (Caption:PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: THE STREETS OF PEKING)
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: "RED GUARDS" SMASH AND CHANGE NAMES OF BANK, SHOP, STREET, MUSEUM AND MARKET IN PEKING
Date:22-24 AUGUST 1966 THE RED "GUARDS" IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARE CONTINUING THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION, AND TODAY IN PEKING, CHINESE TROOPS AND POLICE GUARDED THE SOVIET EMBASSY AS A MASSIVE DEMONSTRATION BY THE "RED GUARDS" WAS GOING ON TO RENAME THE STREET LEADING TO THE EMBASSY. IT IS NOW CALLED THE "STRUGGLE AGAINST REVISIONISM". NAME CHANGING IS ONE OF THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES OF THE "RED GUARDS" IN THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION SWEEPING THE COUNTRY. GROUPS OF "RED GUARDS" INCLUDING GIRL STUDENTS HAVE RAIDED THE HOMES OF SEVERAL PEKING RESIDENTS. RELIGIOUS AND IMPERIAL SYMBOLS HAVE BEEN REMOVED OR COVERED UP AT THE FORMER IMPERIAL PEI HAI PARK, A MAJOR TOURIST ATTRACTION RISING BEHIND THE ANCIENT WALLED "FORBIDDEN CITY" IN THE CENTRE OF PEKING, AND THE FAMOUS SQUARE OF HEAVENLY PEACE (TIEN AN MEN) HAS HAD ITS NAME CHANGED. SINCE THE "RED GUARDS:" CAMPAIGN BEGAN OVER A WEEK AGO, CHINESE OLD AND YOUNG HAVE OUT CUT THEIR HAIR SHORT, AS THE "RED GUARD" CONSIDERS LONG HAIR A SIGN OF DECADENCE. (Caption:PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: "RED GUARDS" SMASH AND CHANGE NAMES OF BANK, SHOP, STREET, MUSEUM AND MARKET IN PEKING)
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: RED GUARDS SEE PLACE IN CANTON WHERE MO TSE-TUNG LIVED AND WORKED AS YOUNG REVOLUTIONARY
Date:RECENT (RECEIVED 12 APRIL 1967) AMONG THE MOST ARDENT SUPPORTERS OF CHAIRMAN MAO TSE-TUNG'S "CULTURAL REVOLUTION" IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARE THE YOUNG RED GUARDS, WHO HAVE BEN GOING IN THEIR THOUSANDS TO SEE A ROOM IN A BUILDING IN CANTON WHERE THEIR IDOL LIVED AND TAUGHT WHEN HE WAS HIMSELF A YOUNG REVOLUTIONARY. THE BUILDING - NOW A MUSEUM - FORMERLY HOUSED THE NATIONAL PEASANTS' MOVEMENT INSTITUTE. THE INSTITUTE BUILDING WAS ACTUALLY BUILT 500 YEARS AGO AS A CONFUCIAN TEMPLE. THE ROOM IN WHICH MAO TSE-TUNG LIVED AT THE INSTITUTE WHEN HE WAS A TEACHER THERE IN HIS EARLY THIRTIES IS PRESERVED EXACTLY AS IT WAS IN 1925. IT CONTAINS ONLY A HARD BED, A DESK AND BOOK TRUNK. THE LECTURE ROOMS, DINING HALLS AND DORMITORIES FOR STUDENTS ARE ALSO AS THEY WERE. FURNISHED WITH ROUGH WOODEN DESKS, TABLES AND BEDS. EA???T AFTERNOON, THE YOUNG RED GUARDS - ALL STUDENTS THEMSELVES - ARE SHOWN AROUND THE MUSEUM AFTER ATTENDING MORNING LECTURES IN THE CLASSROOM. ANOTHER OF THE TEACHERS AT THE INSTITUTE WAS CHOU EN-LAI, NOW THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA. (Caption:PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: RED GUARDS SEE PLACE IN CANTON WHERE MO TSE-TUNG LIVED AND WORKED AS YOUNG REVOLUTIONARY)